Jupiter
jupiter.png

This planet is the largest in our Solar system. It is well-known for having an awful lot of moons. It is named after the Roman king of the gods and ruler of the skies, the wife of whom is Juno. Hindu astronomers called this planet Brihaspati after the teacher of the gods, east Asian astronomers call it the "wood star," German astronomers called it Thor, and Greek astronomers called it Phaethon.

The symbol of this minor planet does not have a well-defined meaning. As best as I can figure, is supposed to be either a very stylized lightning bolt or a Greek capital letter Zeta for Zeus, or some kind of eagle glyph. It is represented in Unicode as U+2643, by the symbol ♃.

It has definitely undergone some mutation in terms of the proportion of its graphical elements over time. I effectively break this symbol down into two atomic elements: the curve on the left, which I use to symbolize lightning, and the cross on the right, which is used to evoke a connection to Jupiter.

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As of July 23, 2018, there are 79 known moons of Jupiter, not counting the very many small bodies that constitute its rings, 51 of which are named. The IAU mandates that all of the moons of Jupiter be named after the lovers or loved ones of Jupiter/Zeus, or their descendants. The 51 named moons are presented here in increasing order of orbital radius:

Name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Metis As 9 Metis, titaness of deep thought, the first wife of Zeus, until he ate her. Eye with iris and pupil, Jovian cross to the right. Symbol
Adrastea As 239 Adrastea, the nymph who nurtured Zeus and hid him from Cronus. Symbol
Amalthea As 113 Amalthea, the goat who nurtured Zeus as a baby. As Aries, with Jovian cross Symbol
Thebe Multiple figures; likely the daughter of Asopus and Metope, who is said to have consorted with Zeus. Symbol
Io As 85 Io, a priestess of Hera who was turned into a white cow for a while. A Greek capital letter Iota with crescent moon horns, Jovian cross to right. Symbol
Europa As 52 Europa, mother of King Minos, seduced by Zeus as a white bull. As Taurus, with Jovian cross Symbol
Ganymede As 1036 Ganymed, cupbearer of the gods. A cup, with Jovian cross. Symbol
Callisto As 204 Kallisto, a follower of Artemis, victim of Zeus, was turned into a bear by Hera afterwards. Ursa Major with a Jovian cross. Symbol
Themisto Daughter of the river god Inachus, mother of Arcas by Zeus. Greek Capital letter Theta with a river wave for the horizontal line, Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Leda As 38 Leda, mother of Helen, Pollux, and Castor by Zeus. A swan as Cygnus with Jovian cross Symbol
Himalia A wheat-themed nymph from Rhodes, mother of Spartaios, Kronios, and Kytos by Zeus. A bushel of wheat, represented by a vertical line with three diagonal slashes, with a Jovian cross. Symbol
Lysithea No stong consensus. Daughter of Oceanus and mother of Dionysus? Or Daughter of Evenus and mother of Helenus? Symbol
Elara Princess, daughter of King Orchomenus, mother of the giant Tityos by Zeus while she was sequestered in the earth. Earth with Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Dia Wife of Ixion, had Pirithous with Zeus the sex horse. Horse symbol with Jovian cross as rear leg. Symbol
Carpo One of the Horae, daughter of Zeus, representing autumn and abundance. Cornucopia with Jovian cross. Symbol
Euporie One of the Horae, daughter of Zeus, representing abundance. A large Cerean sickle, with Jovian cross behind it, and tiny starburst in the center. Symbol
Thelxinoe "Mind charming," one of the original Boetian muses, along with Aoede, Melete, Arche, and Mneme. Clockwise spiral with two and a half turns, Jovian cross to the right. Symbol
Euanthe As 79 Eurynome, mother of the three graces (Euphrosyne, Thalia, Aglaja ) by Zeus. Symbol
Helike A willow nymph that nurtured Zeus in infancy. Tree symbol with Jovian cross. Symbol
Orthosie One of the Horae, daughter of Zeus, representing prosperity. A large Cerean sickle, with Jovian cross behind it, and tiny circle in the center (as Pluto, a god of wealth.) Symbol
Iocaste As 899 Jokaste, Jocasta, mother of Oedipus. Really had nothing to do with Zeus… Greek capital letter Iota, line above representing Jocasta's hanging, Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Praxidike Greek goddess of punishment and vengeance - possibly an aspect of Persephone, daughter of Zeus. A pomegranate with a wide "X" in it, with Jovian cross. Symbol
Harpalyke Daugher and victim of Clymenus, served her incest-born son to him as a meal, got turned into an owl. Stylized owl, Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Mneme One of the original Boetian muses, along with Aoede, Melete, Arche, and Thelxinoe. The muse of memory. A scroll, as Calliope, with a Jovian cross. Symbol
Hermippe Daughter of Boeotus, sometimes mother of Orchomenos, by Zeus. Symbol
Thyone The divine name of Semele, mother of Dionysus by Zeus. Bunch of grapes with Jovian cross to upper right. Symbol
Ananke Mother of the Moirai or Fates by Zeus. Symbol
Herse Daughter of Zeus and Selene, represents dew. Down-facing crescent, teardrop coming down from it, Jovian cross to right. Symbol
Aitne Divine personification of Mount Etna, perhaps mothered the twin geyser gods Palici by Zeus. Simple mountain with Jovian cross to lower right? Symbol
Kale Also named Charis and Aglaea, one of the Graces, daughter of Zeus and sometimes wife of Hephaestus. Grace symbol, small hammer above, Jovian cross on right leg. Symbol
Taygete One of the Pleiades, mother of Lacadaemon by Zeus. A Greek capital letter Tau, between two circular hemispheres representing the sisters hanging between heaven and earth, Jovian cross to right Symbol
Chaldene Mother of Solymus, hero of the Solymi tribe, by Zeus. Symbol
Erinome Perhaps as 79 Eurynome, another name for the mother of the three Graces by Zeus. Daughter of Celes. Symbol
Aoede One of the original Boetian muses, along with Mneme, Melete, Arche, and Thelxinoe. Muse of voice and song. An aulos, as Euterpe, with Jovian cross. Symbol
Kallichore Poorly documented. Either a muse of some unknown domain, or one of the nymphs who nurtured a young Dionysus. Symbol
Kalyke Daughter of Aeolus and Enarete, mother of Endymion (lover of Selene) by Zeus. Symbol
Carme An ancient grain goddess, mother of the huntress Britomartis by Zeus. C-shaped sickle, Jovian cross to right. Symbol
Callirrhoe A naiad, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. Up-facing fish, Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Eurydome Perhaps as 79 Eurynome, yet another name for the mother of the three Graces by Zeus. Symbol
Pasithee Yet another name for Charis/Cale/Aglaea, one of the three Graces. Supposedly the spouse of Hypnos, and the grace of relaxation, hallucinations, and sleep. A half-lidded eye with iris, Jovian cross to right. Symbol
Kore "Daughter," another name for Persephone, daughter of Demeter and Zeus. A composition of the symbols for Jupiter and Ceres: as Jupiter, but with the lightning curve replaced with the upper part of Ceres. Symbol
Cyllene Supposedly a naiad or oread associated with Mount Kylinni; daughter of Zeus. Simple mountain with river wave crossing it below, Jovian cross to right. Symbol
Eukelade Supposedly a rarely-invoked muse. Not a daughter of Mnemosyne, I'd expect. Her name means "well-sounding." A lyre, as Erato, with a Jovian cross. Symbol
Pasiphae Queen of Crete, wife of King Minos, gave birth to the minotaur after an unfortunate incident involving one of Poseidon's white bulls. Symbol
Hegemone Supposedly one of the Graces; a goddess of fruit, flowering, and autumn; counterpart to Auxo of the spring. Simple fruit symbol with Jovian cross. Symbol
Arche One of the original Boetian muses, along with Aoede, Melete, Aoede, and Thelxinoe. Her name means "first" or "beginning;" what this means I can only speculate. Perhaps she is the muse of starting new projects. A Greek lowercase letter alpha, representing both her name and the first number in the Greek numeral system, with Jovian cross. Symbol
Isonoe One of the Danaiades, the fifty daughters of Danaus. Mother of Orchomenus by Zeus, who turned her into a spring. Spring with Jovian cross to the lower right. Symbol
Sinope Daughter of Asopus, mythic namesake of the city of Sinop, Turkey. In some stories, she was abducted by Zeus, who swore to fulfill her deepest wish if she would be with him. Her deepest wish, incidentally, was to remain a virgin. Symbol
Sponde One of the Horae, daughter of Zeus, representing after-lunch libations. A circle, representing a phiale, with a drop coming down from it, with a Jovian cross. Symbol
Autonoe In some accounts, ANOTHER name for the mother of the Graces. In others, a sister of Semele who helped raise Dionysus. Symbol
Megaclite Mother of Thebe and Locrus by Zeus. Symbol
Currently, the satellite J/2016 S 2 is unnamed, but the name Valetudo was proposed. [1]
Name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Valetudo Roman goddess of health and hygiene, great-granddaughter of Jupiter. Greek counterpart is Hygeia. (Zeus -> Apollo -> Asclepius -> Hygeia) Rod with snake entwined around it, Jovian cross to lower right. Symbol
Lastly, here are some more names for Jovian planets that I propose. Certainly they are needed, as there are many unnamed moons of Jupiter and there are predicted to be many more yet unobserved. Fortunately, Zeus/Jupiter has some connection to virtually every female in Greek/Roman myth, so there is no shortage of names.
Proposed name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Thallo Greek Hora of spring and blooms, counterpart of the Roman goddess Flora. As 8 Flora, but reversed, and with Jovian cross instead of female cross. Symbol
Pherusa Greek Hora of substance and patron of farm estates. A large Cerean sickle, with Jovian cross behind it, and tiny square in the center (as a tract of land, or a deed to a farm.) Symbol
Auxo or Auxesia Greek Hora of summer and growth; alternately represented spring alongside Hegemone, autumn. Large circle with eight small semicircles surrounding it like petals on a flower, Jovian cross. Symbol
Auge Greek Hora of first light. Sun with horizontal line one-fourth down, Jovian cross on the end of it. Symbol
Anatole or Anatolia Greek Hora of sunrise. Sun with horizontal line three-fourths down, Jovian cross on the end of it. Symbol
Nymphe or Nympha Greek Hora of ablutions. Large jug with water wave in it, Jovian cross. Symbol
Mesembria Greek Hora of noon. Clock, as Horologium at12 o'clock, with Jovian cross. Symbol
Enope Greek muse, very uncommon, whose name perhaps means "well-voiced." Small circle, Echo lines above, Jovian cross. Symbol
Pandemos Aspect or epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite which represented physical, mortal love. According to Plato, this is the version of the goddess that was explicitly the daughter of Jupiter and Dione. Venus, but rotated counter-clockwise 90 degrees. Symbol

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[1] https://edition.cnn.com/2018/07/17/us/jupiter-12-new-moons/index.html

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