Saturn
saturn.png

This gas giant is known for its huge ring system. It is named after the Roman god of time, wealth, agriculture, and freedom. Due to Greek syncretism, this god also came to be the father of Jupiter and the husband of Ops, but his role is quite different from his Greek counterpart Cronus. He was the patron of the Saturnalia, a festival of feasting, revelry, and liberation. His original wife was Lua.

The classical symbol of this planet is a downward-facing sickle, an icon of Saturn's role as the god of agriculture. It is also the alchemical symbol for lead, so inspired because lead is the heaviest classical element and Saturn is the slowest classical planet. This symbol is considered to be composed of two sub-parts: the Saturnian cross to the upper left, and the crook of the scythe. It is represented in Unicode as U+2644, by the symbol ♄.

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As of July 2018, there are 62 known moons of Saturn, not counting the very many small bodies that constitute its rings, 53 of which are named. Most of Saturn's moons are named after Titans from Greek mythology, but some are named after other figures from Greek myth, or giants from other mythologies. Each of the symbols of these moons will have a Saturnian cross, a cross usually placed in the upper left, to distinguish and unify them as satellites of Saturn. The 53 named moons are presented here in increasing order of orbital radius:

Name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Pan As 4450 Pan, Greek god of wilderness and shepherds. A pan flute, as 3360 Syrinx, with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Daphnis Son of Hermes, beloved of Pan, who taught him to play the pan flutes. Head of Hermes, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Atlas One of the twelve Titans in Greek myth, condemned to bear the weight of the celestial heavens after the titanomachy. Circle with solar dot, halfcircle below, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Prometheus As 1809 Prometheus, a Titan son of Iapetus who created humanity and stole fire from the gods. An eagle (Aquilae), as the one that ate his liver constantly as punishment, with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Pandora As 55 Pandora, the first woman in Greek myth, and the indirect cause of evil in the world. A pithos (jar), with lid tilted up from right corner, with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Epimetheus As 1810 Epimetheus, Titan from Greek myth, dull brother of Prometheus. Symbol
Janus Roman god of beginnings, endings, transitions, and duality. He has no Greek counterpart. Depiction of the two-faced head, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Aegaeon Also named Briareus, one of the Hecatoncheires that helped overthrow the Titans. A large 8-pointed starburst with a short downward arrow, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Mimas A giant from Greek mythology, offspring of Gaia and Uranus, killed by the Olympian gods. Large Greek capital letter Mu, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Methone One of the Alkyonides from Greek myth. Greek capital letter Mu with kingfisher wings and Saturnian cross. Symbol
Anthe One of the Alkyonides from Greek myth. Greek capital letter Alpha with kingfisher wings and Saturnian cross. Symbol
Pallene One of the Alkyonides from Greek myth. Greek capital letter Pi with kingfisher wings and Saturnian cross. Symbol
Enceladus One of the giant offspring of Gaia and Uranus from Greek myth, slain by Athena, buried under Mount Etna. Simple mountain with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Tethys A Titan from Greek myth, daughter of Gaia and Uranus, sister-wife of Oceanus. A vertical wave representing both a river and a snake, broad horns with a Saturnian cross on the left one. Symbol
Telesto One of the 3000 Oceanids of Greek myth. She personified success and liked to wear yellow dresses. Honestly, what a role model. As Venus, but turned clockwise 90 degrees, and with the Oceanus symbol (wave crossing the circle's bottom.) Symbol
Calypso As 53 Kalypso, a nymph or nereid from Greek myth who detained Odysseus on Ogygia A veil with a Saturnian cross Symbol
Dione As 106 Dione, in some sources a Titan and mother of Aphrodite. As Venus, but turned clockwise 90 degrees. Symbol
Helene As 101 Helena, Apple symbol with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Polydeuces Another name for Pollux, the divine twin of the mortal Castor, the children of Leda who became Gemini. Left half of Gemini, with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Rhea As 577 Rhea, wife of Cronus and mother of the Olympian gods of Greek myth. Like the symbol for Rhea, an up-crescent in a circle, but with a Saturnian instead of Jovian cross. Symbol
Titan The general name of all of the original children of Gaia and Uranus, predecessors of the Olympian gods in Greek myth. Saturn, but with a small circle in the crook. Symbol
Hyperion "The high one," one of the original twelve Titans in Greek myth. Fathered Helios, Selene, and Eos with Theia. Half-circle with solar dot and Saturnian cross. Meant to convey a downward-looking eye a connection to the Sun. Symbol
Iapetus "The piercer," one of the original twelve Titans in Greek myth. Husband of Asia or the Oceanid Clymene, father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius. Symbol
Kiviuq Wandering hero in Inuit myth. Vertical kayak, with Saturnian cross at the top, and a wave crossing it, representing all the natural and supernatural forces that trouble him on his journeys. Symbol
Ijiraq The caribous-man shape shifter monsters from Inuit myth. Circle representing human head, caribou horns, Saturnian cross on upper left horn. Symbol
Phoebe "Shining," one of the original twelve Titans in Greek myth. Mother of Leto and Asteria with Coeus, grandmother of Apollo and Artemis. Sort of a cross of Leto and Asteria's symbols: a comet glyph with small composed sun and moon in the circle, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Paaliaq A fictional Inuit shaman in Michael Kusugak's "The Curse of the Shaman." A right-facing squirrel, with a Saturnian cross on the tail. Symbol
Skathi Skaði, a jötunn from Norse myth. Goddess of winter, hunting, and skiing. Her main stories concerns her demand for justice from her father's death by Loki. Mountain with crossed skis within it, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Albiorix A giant from Gaulish myth whose name is known from an inscription near Sablet, France. Identified with Mars. As Mars, but reversed, and with a Saturnian cross instead of arrow head. Symbol
Bebhionn Bébinn or Bébhinn, a goddess of birth from Irish mythology. Symbol
Erriapus A giant in Gaulish myth. A capital E with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Skoll A giant wolf from Norse myth that chases the horses that drive the chariot that carry the Sun. Twin of Hati. A wolf head with Saturnian cross over small Sun. Symbol
Siarnaq A giant from Inuit myth, supposedly a goddess of animals, perhaps another name for Sedna [1]. As the Symbol for Sedna, but the upper left is just a Saturnian cross. Symbol
Tarqeq Tarqeq or Tarqiup Inua, god of the moon, hunter, fertility, and animals in Inuit myth. Left-facing crescent moon, Saturnian cross, left arrow. Symbol
Greip Giantess in Norse myth, sister of Gjalp and daughter of Geirrothr, who tried to kill Thor until he killed them. Inverted Thor hammer, with handle as the bottom part of Gemini (denoting her status as twin of Geirrothr), and Saturnian cross. Symbol
Hyrrokkin "Fire smoked," a giantess from Norse myth who was enlisted to push the funeral vessel of Baldr and Nanna because she was the only one strong enough. Her steed: a wolf with serpent reins, Saturnian cross on left ear. Symbol
Jarnsaxa A jotunn from Norse myth, said to be the bride of Thor. Thor's hammer, but rotated clockwise 90 degrees, with a cross that is both Saturnian and female. Symbol
Tarvos A bull god from Gaulish myth, sometimes depicted as carrying three cranes on his back As Taurus, with three marks on top and Saturnian cross on left horn. Symbol
Mundilfari God from Norse myth, father of Sól, the sun goddess, and Máni, the moon goddess. Composed sun and moon symbols, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Bergelmir The progenitor of the frost giants or jötunn from Norse myth. Escaped the death of Ymir in a debatedly Noah-like way. A figure on a boat over a wave, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Narvi Narfi/Nörfi/Nörr, jotunn from Norse myth, father of Nott, goddess of night. Symbol
Suttungr A jotunn from Norse myth, who once possessed the magical mead of poetry. He sequestered it in a mountain and made his daughter watch over it. Jug shape under a mountain, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Hati A giant wolf from Norse myth that chases the horses that drive the chariot that carry the Moon. Twin of Skoll. A wolf head with Saturnian cross over small Moon. Symbol
Farbauti A jotunn from Norse myth, a giant associated with storms and lightning, father of Loki. There's sort of a metaphor here about lightning causing a wildfire. Symbol
Thrymr King of the jotunns of Norse myth. Once stole Thor's hammer Mjolnir. Inverted Thor hammer, X over the bottom of the handle. Symbol
Aegir Ægir, as the exoplanet AEgir, is a jotunn from Norse myth and the god of calm seas. Same symbol, a jug containing a water wave, with a Saturnian cross. Symbol
Bestla Giant from Norse myth, mother of Odin, Vili, and Ve by Borr. Symbol
Fenrir Or Fenris, or Fenrisulfr, a monstrous wolf who is prophesied to kill Odin at the end of the world. A wolf head with Saturnian cross over small Earth. Symbol
Surtur A jotunn from Norse myth. Guardian of the fiery realm of Muspell, wielder of a bright sword A flaming sword: sword glyph with an upright triangle piercing it; Saturnian cross at top point. Symbol
Kari A giant from Norse myth, personification of the wind. A counter-clockwise spiral, with a Saturnian cross in the upper left. Symbol
Ymir A primordial giant from Norse myth, ancestor of all the jotunns, whose body became the universe. A depiction of Ymir's birth: a teardrop of poison coming from a river/snake, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Loge A giant from Norse myth, god and personification of wildfire. Not to be confused with Loki. Large triangle representing fire, Saturnian cross. Symbol
Fornjot An ancient giant-king from Norse myth, father of Logi, Ægir, and Kari. Pentimal numeral 3, with Saturnian cross. Symbol
Additionally, Saturn has two ghost moons - moons that were claimed to have been discovered, but never verified by a second observer. They are included here, just in case they are re-observed or their names are re-used.
Name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Chiron As 2060 Chiron, a centaur from Greek myth. Similar to 2060 Chiron's symbol: a small circle with a vertical line above, Saturnian cross to the left in a key shape. Symbol
Themis As 24 Themis, the titaness of divine law from Greek myth, one of the original twelve Titans. Simple sword and scales, Saturnian cross above and left. Symbol

Here are some other titans and giants from myth that could be used as potential names for other moons of Saturn:

Proposed name Description of referent Description of symbol Symbol
Menoetius Titan from Greek myth, son of Iapetus and Clymene or Asia, brother of Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Atlas. His name means something like "doom and might." Symbol
Crius "The ram," one of the twelve Titans in Greek myth. Not much personality. Father of the titans Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. Symbol
Coeus "The questioner," one of the twelve Titans in Greek myth, a source of rational intelligence. father of Leto and Asteria with Phoebe. Symbol
Astraeus Titan from Greek myth, god of dusk. Father of the winds Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus, and the planets Phainon, Phaethon (not this one), Pyroeis, Eosphoros/Hesperos, and Stilbon with Eos. Symbol
Perses "The destroyer," a titan from Greek myth. Father of Hecate by Asteria. Symbol

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[1] https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/moons/saturn-moons/siarnaq/in-depth/

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